Menu 21: A List of Writeups on Gene Therapy Used in Ophthalmology
(Updated May 25, 2014)
In an announcement today, Oxford BioMedica said that it had gained approval from the FDA to begin a Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial for a form of Usher’s Syndrome, Type 1B, which leads to progressive retinitis pigmentosa combined with a congenital hearing defect.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 9: Oxford BioMedica/OHSU Preparing to Treat First Usher Syndrome Patient & Oxford BioMedica Ophthalmic Program Update Mar. 2012
A report on the start of the program to treat Usher Syndrome patients at OSHU, and an update on other ophthalmic programs underway by Oxford BioMedica.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 10: Gene Therapy Research in Dogs Cures X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa – Paves the Way for Similar Treatment in Humans Mar. 2012
Researchers at several universities and laboratories collaborated to treat dogs afflicted with the x-linked form of retinitis pigmentosa, to deliver the therapeutic RPGR gene specifically to the diseased rods and cones, which led to functional and structural recovery. This is the first proof that this condition is treatable in an animal model and the researchers feel the results are promising and relevant for translation to humans afflicted with this disease.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 11: Clinical Trial Details May 2012
In attempting to determine how many patients had been treated with gene therapy for eye disorders, I quickly found that no one was keeping track – at least no one that I could find.
So, I decided to try and get this data. I have now found reliable data for more than two-thirds of the 16 clinical trials underway and present this information in my new table. My latest table (available via Update 16) contains all of the newest data.
Editors Note: See Update 16 for access to the latest versions of the three tables.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 12: First Gene Therapy Approval on the Horizon Jul. 2012
As Andrew Pollack writes in today’s NYTimes, “After more than two decades of dashed expectations, the field of gene therapy appears close to reaching a milestone: a regulatory approval. The European Medicines Agency has recommended approval of a gene therapy to treat a rare genetic disease.”
The therapy recommended for approval in Europe, called Glybera, was developed by uniQure, a Dutch company. It treats lipoprotein lipase deficiency, a disease that affects only several hundred people in the European Union and a similar number in North America.
People with the disease have a genetic mutation that prevents them from producing an enzyme needed to break down certain fat-carrying particles that circulate in the bloodstream after meals. Without the enzyme, so much fat can accumulate that the blood looks white rather than red.
The reason I believe that this is important is because it brings “legitimacy” to the whole field of regenerative medicine. As readers of this online Journal are aware, my interest is in the field of ophthalmology. As you may be further aware, I am currently tracking eleven clinical trials involving the use of stem cells to treat ophthalmic disorders and sixteen gene therapy clinical trials. Several of these are showing promising results and the above approval, when it comes, will bring increased attention to the whole of this field, including the ophthalmic trials.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 13: New Clinical Site for Usher Syndrome Clinical Trials Jul. 2012
The Foundation Fighting Blindness and Oxford BioMedica announced funding for a second clinical site to conduct a gene therapy trial for Ushers Syndrome. The site will be the Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts in Paris, and will join the ongoing clinical trial being held at the Oregon Health & Science University's Casey Eye Institute.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 14: Early Positive Results in Ongoing Gene Therapy Wet AMD and Stargardt’s Disease Studies Aug. 2012
Last week, Oxford BioMedica and its partner Sanofi announced positive results in their ongoing gene therapy clinical trials for wet AMD and Stargardt’s disease. In an interim review of their Phase I (RetinoStat) and Phase I/IIa (StarGen) trials, the Data Safetly Monitoring Board (DSMB), an independent panel of specialists in the fields of ophthalmology, virology and vectorology, gave the go ahead to proceed to a final patient cohort in the Phase I study in the case of the RetinoStat trial, and to a third patient cohort in the Phase I/IIa study of the StarGen trial.
As I first wrote back in July (Update 12: First Gene Therapy Approval on the Horizon), the first approval of a gene therapy application in medicine was expected soon. It has now been accomplished. On November 2nd, the European Medicines Agency gave final approval to a gene therapy approach to treat a rare genetic disease.
The therapy, given approval in Europe, called Glybera, was developed by uniQure, a Dutch company. It treats lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD), a disease that affects only several hundred people in the European Union and a similar number in North America.
The reason I am noting this accomplishment in this space, where I normally write about treatments for ocular diseases is, because it brings “legitimacy” to the whole field of regenerative medicine. As readers of this online Journal are aware, my interest is in the field of ophthalmology. As you may be further aware, I am currently tracking twenty one clinical trials involving the use of stem cells (or cell threapy) to treat ophthalmic disorders and sixteen gene therapy clinical trials. Several of these are showing promising results and the above approval will bring increased attention to the whole of this field, including the ophthalmic trials.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 16: Current Tables Now Online Jan. 2013/May 2014
Access to the three updated tables of information about the companies and institutions active in gene therapy, the ophthalmic applications being pursued, and the clinical trials underway and completed.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 17: Hemera Biosciences Obtains Initial Funding Mar. 2013
Hemera biosciences has obtained initial funding, along with the issuance of a US Patent covering their technology and can now begin manufacturing its drug, soluble CD59 (protectin), perform animal toxicology, and initiate a phase 1 clinical study.
To review, HMR59 is a gene therapy using an AAV2 vector to express a soluble form of a naturally occurring membrane bound protein called CD59 (sCD59), which blocks MAC. Membrane attack complex is the final common pathway of activation of the complement cascade, and is composed of complement factors C5b, C6, C7, C8 and C9 that assemble as a pore on cell membranes. The MAC pore induces ionic fluid shifts leading to cell destruction and ultimate death.
HMR59 works by increasing the production of sCD59 by ocular cells. The sCD59 released from the cells will circulate throughout the eye and penetrate the retina to block MAC deposition and prevent cellular destruction. By blocking MAC, the remainder of the upstream complement cascade is left intact to perform its normal homeostatic roles.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 18: A RetroSense Update Mar. 2013
Since I first wrote about RetroSense in November 2010, I have learned that they are using a unique technology, called Optogenetic Therapy to treat retinitis pigmentosa and dry AMD. Optogenetics combines gene therapy and optical methods to provide vision where there is none.
The gene therapy allows the delivery of an “opsin” that converts second- or third-order non-light sensitive cells to become light sensitive to mimic the function of rods and cones.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 19: A New Virus Vector for Safer Delivery of Gene Therapies Jun. 2013
Researchers at UCal Berkeley have found a gene therapy vector that can deliver genes deep into the retina via intravitreous delivery, instead of using a needle to deliver the virus sub-retinally.
This eliminates the need for a vitrectomy, anesthesia and a hospital stay to treat patients, allowing for a simple short office visit and injection into the vitreous, similar to the way anti-VEGF drugs for age-related macular degeneration are currently delivered.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 20: Oxford BioMedica Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Resume Oct. 2013
As I have recently noted, both Oxford BioMedica and Genzyme had stopped recruiting for their respective gene therapy clinical trials this summer. Oxford announced the reason for its stoppage, but no word from Genzyme (and no response to my attempts to find out).
Well, Oxford announced today that it had resumed its clinical trial after receiving clearances from both the FDA and the French regulatory agency, ANSM.
Gene Therapy in Ophthalmology Update 21: New Gene Therapy Company, Spark Therapeutics, Launches Oct. 2013
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has spun out a new gene therapy company, Spark Therapeutics, that has taken over CHOP’s gene therapy programs. The new company takes over the advanced clinical trial for treating Leber’s Congenital Amaurosis, as well as an earlier stage trial for treating hemophilia B.
The Phase III clinical trial for Leber’s, is expected to be completed in mid-2015, and could become the first FDA-approved gene therapy treatment in the U.S.
A Novel Gene Therapy Approach to Treating the Wet Form of AMD: The BioFactoryTM From Avalanche Biotech Feb. 2012
I originally contacted this company in November 2010, when they were still in “stealth mode” and weren't able to share details about what they were doing. Recently, the company got back in touch to provide an update, having announced, in December 2011, a clinical trial of their gene therapy approach to treating the wet form of AMD.
Since their approach is unique, and possibly “game changing” for the treatment of the wet form of AMD, I asked if I could prepare a writeup about the company and its technology for publication in my online Journal, and the co-founder and CEO Tom Chalberg agreed to answer my questions, as best as he could. So, here in their own words is what Avalanche Biotech is all about.
An Update on Avalanche Biotechnologies: A Potential Longer-Lasting Wet AMD Treatment? May 2014
With the news of a collaboration between Avalanche and Regeneron, we decided to update our initial report on Avalanche to describe what the collaboration is all about, as well as a brief update of the clinical trial underway using Avalanche’s Ocular BioFactory. Could this approach to treating wet AMD lead to fewer injections – once every 18 months or several years – in controlling this sight-robbing disease?